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In gymnastics, you use rings, bars, and other apparatus to perform systematic movements as a competitive sport or to improve strength, agility, coordination, and physical fitness.
As its name implies, gymnastics refers to all exercises practiced in the gymnasium, where male athletes actually exercise bare-chested.In 393 ce, many of these exercises were included in the Olympic Games.Some of the competitions included in this ancient definition of gymnastics later evolved into sports such as athletics (track and field), wrestling, and boxing.
The only modern events considered to be gymnastics were tumbling and primitive vaulting.There are hieroglyphic records of backbends and other stunts that were performed in the Egyptian and Greek cultures, as well as a famous fresco at Knossos, depicting a man performing either a cartwheel or handspring over a charging bull.Also in ancient China, tumbles were an art form.Acrobatics are depicted in stone engravings found in Shandong province that date to the Han period (206 bce–220 ce).
Thespians, dancers, acrobats, and jugglers practiced tumbling in the Middle Ages, when thespian troupes traveled the world.First described in the West in a book written by Archange Tuccaro in the 15th century, Trois dialogues du Sr.Archange Tuccaro (it contains three essays about jumping and tumbling).The activity of tumbling has evolved in various forms in many cultures with little cross-cultural influence.The hoop-diving shown in Tuccaro's book looks incredibly similar to the tumbling seen in ancient China.Eventually, all forms of acrobatics and tumbling were part of the circus, and it was circus acrobats who helped invent the primitive trampoline.
Historiographers credit Rousseau's novel Émile; ou, de l'éducation (1762; Emile; or, On Education) for initiating a sweeping educational reform in Europe that incorporated physical as well as cognitive training.As a result of Rousseau's work in the late 1700s, educational reformers in Germany opened schools such as Philanthropinum in the late 1800s that included outdoor activities including gymnastics, and students from all economic strata were welcome.Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths (1759-1829), the "grandfather" of modern gymnastics, taught at the Philanthropinist school in Schnepfenthal.As Guts Muths wrote in Gymnastik für die Jugend (1793; Gymnastics for Youth), there are two main divisions of gymnastics: natural gymnastics and artificial gymnastics.Gymnastics can be classified as utilitarian or nonutilitarian.Those disciplines emphasize body health, in a manner similar to exercises developed in Sweden and Denmark under Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839) and Neils Bukh (1880-1950), respectively.Sports aerobics has recently been added to the disciplines of the International Gymnastics Federation as a discipline of modern aerobics.As opposed to nonutilitarian gymnastics, which is a style of gymnastics based on aesthetics rather than functionality, artistic gymnastics is performed for beauty rather than function.As an example, young men in feudal Europe were taught how to mount an horse and dismount it, necessary skills during a time when armies rode.Horse work in artistic gymnastics has evolved to a point where there is no practical correlation between gymnastic maneuvers on a horse and horsemanship.Gymnastics only uses the language of mounting and dismounting, but no other terminology.
Among the principal developers of natural gymnastics was Per Henrik Ling.1813, Ling established the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Stockholm as a teacher-training centre.Ling developed and taught a system of gymnastic exercises designed to improve the health of the athlete.Free calisthenics are credited to him, that is, exercises that do not require any hand apparatus, such as wands, clubs, and dumbbells.Though Ling didn't advocate competition, free calisthenics has developed into the popular competitive sport now called floor exercise.
The founder of the Turnverein movement, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, is recognized as the "father" of gymnastics and is credited with the rapid spread of the sport all over the world. .Ernst Eiselen, Jahn's assistant and coauthor of Die Deutsche Turnkunst (1816; The German Gymnastic Art), described the techniques developed on the playground carefully.Vaulting and leg-swinging were both practiced with the pommel horse.To build a strong upper-body in his students, Jahn invented parallel bars. To test their courage, he built immense towers.A Turnplatz also features balance beams, vertical bars, climbing ropes, and climbing poles.Among other things, primitive pole vaulting was practised there.The playground was filled with a variety of challenging apparatus that attracted young men who were then indoctrinated with Jahn's dream of German unification and associated ideas regarding the defense of the fatherland and eradicating French influence from Prussia.
The Prussians and other leaders from surrounding nations began to be suspicious of nationalistic sentiments after Napoleon's defeat and Jahn and his followers gained nationalist support. .The Prussian king Frederick William III closed approximately 100 gymnastics fields and centers in Prussia after August von Kotzebue was murdered by a Burschenschaft gymnast in 1819.This inspired other Germanic states to follow suit.During jahn's five-year house arrest, he faced charges of being a democratic demagogue.In the end, he was acquitted, but told to move to a city not having higher education or gymnasiums far away from Berlin.Initially, he was given a yearly stipend and settled in Freiburg.While under house arrest, Jahn's children died; his wife died shortly thereafter.Karl Beck, Karl Follen, and Franz Lieber fled to North America, fearing arrest, bringing gymnastics with them.
In 1860, the first German gymnastic festival (Turnfest) was held in Coburg, Germany. .Jahn's followers introduced gymnastics to Americans in the late 1820s, but it wasn't until the 1848 immigration wave that transplanted Turnverein members organized clubs and formed a national association for Turner societies.An American Turner-inspired movement known as the Sokol originated and spread in Bohemia and was also transported to the United States by 1861. By 1861 American Turners and Turners from Germanic regions bordering Prussia attended the second Turnfest in Berlin.By 1896, eight Turnfests had been held in Germany, and a growing number of countries had taken part.
1881 saw the establishment of the Fédération Internationale Gymnastique (FIG) to organize international competitions.Gymnastics gained popularity after the 1896 Olympic Games, when the FIG World Championships for men were organized in 1903 and for women in 1934.
At the 1896 Olympic Games, gymnastics became an internationally contested sport.In addition to traditional German, or "heavy apparatus," events, there were rope climbing events presented at the Games.Gymnastics competitions did not become standardized and free of track-and-field events until the 1928 Olympics, when five of the six events contested today were added - pommel horse, rings, vaulting, parallel bars, and horizontal bar with mandatory and optional routines.Olympics first organized for women in 1928, with events similar to those for men but with the addition of the balance beam.←